Finally a complete troubleshooting guide for the most common problems experienced with 3D printers.
As much as we would like for 3D printing to be plug and play with minimum issues, that day not quite reached us yet… though it is not that far way.
Therefore, in the meantime we need to settle with recognising potential problems and fixing them ourselves (many of which are created by us and not our printer)
- 1 3D Printing Issue #1: Warping / Curling
- 1.1 What is Warping & What Causes it?
- 1.2 How to Combat Warping Issues?
- 2 3D Printing Issue #2: Stringing / Oozing Effect
- 2.1 What is Stringing & What Causes it?
- 2.2 How to Combat Stringing Issues?
- 3 3D Printing Issue #3: Blocked Nozzle (Bowden)
- 4 3D Printing Issue #4: Over Extrusion
- 5 3D Printing Issue #x: Under Extrusion
- 6 3D Printing Issue #x: Lack of Bed Adhesion
- 7 3D Printing Issue #x: Layer Shifts
- 8 3D Printing Issue #x: Snapped Filament
- 9 3D Printing Issue #x: Stripped Filament
- 10 xxxxxx
3D Printing Issue #1: Warping / Curling
What is Warping & What Causes it?
The plastic used for generating your model will cool at different rates within different areas of your model. For example, plastic around the edges tend to cool faster than within the model as it is exposed to more air.
When cooling happens too quickly at some areas of the model, the model starts to curl or bend upwards to the point it is no longer level with the printer bed. As a result, the model’s shape is compromised and the bending effect also puts some stress creating cracks on the model.
Although PLA has a lower shrinking factor to ABS, they both can still warp. Please not that this does not necessarily mean that PLA is the solution to this problem, as both plastics have other advantages and disadvantages.
How to Combat Warping Issues?
- Clean Build Surface
- Distribute Heat Evenly
- Z-axis Calibration for Good Foundation
- Increase Printing Resolution
- Apply Adhesion to Build Surface
- Levelling Build Platform
Clean & dust free build surface:
Impurities, debris, dust and old pieces of your print residing on your bed can assist with warping. PLA and ABS stick on cleaner surfaces better, which in turn holds your print in place restricting the effects of warping.
Evenly Distributing Heat Within Your Print
As mentioned, warping is caused by differences in temperature within the model. Traditionally when printing a 3D model, the layers are added from the bottom and work their way up, which means the bottom layers start to cool as the rest of the layers are being built up (causing the warping).
By using a heated bed, the lower layers of the print stay warm, preventing greater differences in temperature which reduced the nasty effects of warping.
Correct Z-endstop Calibration
The first layers of your print are the foundations that provide strength and rigidity. The 3D printer’s Z-endstop needs to be set correctly, set it too high from the bed and the plastic will struggle to get a good bond to the platform and set it too close, the filament may start to clog up at the nozzle as there is no sufficient gap to allow the plastic to extrude at the correct rate (a clicking sound coming from the stepper motor indicates clogging)
Tip: Test several first layers at different heights (increments of 0.05mm) until satisfied.
Tip #2: It is best to level your bed / platform first before calculating the desired Z-endstop (to get an equal Z-endstop value, the bed needs to be entirely flat throughout its area)
Bed Level Calibration
This is simply the art of making sure your printing platform or bed is completely horizontal (or as horizontal as physically possible). A horizontal bed will allow for a more accurate print, with even added layers and improved structure strength… less chance of warping / curling.
Doing this will depend on your printer’s make and model, however, if you are new to the world of 3D printing and require an explanation on how to do this generally.
Here is an article on levelling your printing platform on the MakerGear M2
Printing Resolution: The Speed At Which You Print
A higher resolution print means thinner layer build up along the X-Y directions. This means better adhesion, more layers (therefore improved structural integrity) and slower cooling rates.
Just like with normal printers, the higher the resolution, the slower the print, which means a slower moving printer head and therefore less movement of the printer itself. Such movement can effect the overall print quality (due to shake) that can assist with structural problems, making warping even more possible.
applying Glue To Build Surface
Making sure your print is firmly stuck to your platform is one way of preventing the base of your model from warping. However, there is a fine line regarding how firmly your print should be fixed against the platform.
For example, blue double sided tape will hold your model firmly on the bed, however, this creates issues when removing your model from the bed once the print is finished (the adhesion is so strong, that by pulling your model free, you may end up damaging it).
One alternative is Elmer’s Disappearing Purple School Glue Sticks which generally has enough adhesion to keep your model in place (depending on its size). It is also non toxic and can be easily cleaned off by simply applying hot water.
3D Printing Issue #2: Stringing / Oozing Effect
What is Stringing & What Causes it?
Stringing is when small thin strands of plastic protrude out from the model a little like strands of hair.
There are points where the nozzle needs to travels through open air (travel move) to get to an other point of the model to deposit plastic. During this ‘open air’ movement, the nozzle should not be depositing any plastic, however, if there is any leakage or oozing, the plastic will leak on parts of the model where it should, hence ‘stringing’
How to Combat Stringing Issues?
- Enable Retraction Settings on Slicer
- Moisture Retained Filaments
- Nozzle Temperature Settings for Filaments
- Increase Printer Speed (During Non-Print Moves)
Easy Pressure on Nozzle Through Retraction Settings
Though this would be the first thing most 3D printer users would think about, it still could be something that is simply overlooked.
The nozzle needs to provide some pressure so that the plastic can come out at a specific rate when building up the print, however, it is important to tell the nozzle to ease off the pressure during non-print moves (travel moves) to prevent any plastic from leaking out onto your model.
Every 3D Slicer software will have a ‘retraction’ settings where you can adjust set pressures on your nozzle.
Some experimenting will be in order to determine what best retraction settings suit your printer and filament being used. Setting retraction too high is one reason for clogging up your nozzle, and setting it too low will, well, cause oozing and result in stringing.
What Determines Retraction Settings For Fixing Stringing
Bowden Extruders: have more distance between the nozzle and driver and therefore requires higher retraction settings
Direct Drive Extruders: have a closer distance between the nozzle and driver and therefore requires a lesser retraction settings.
Filament Type: PLA and ABS for example have different property characteristics and therefore require different retraction settings.
Same Filament Type: Even having the same filament type bought from the same manufacturer can mean adjusting your retraction settings, due to differences in characteristics.
Moisture in Filament
You may have heard that keeping your filaments moisture free is a much recommended practise, particularly with PLA, as they tend to absorb more moisture than ABS.
As the plastic feeds through, it is heated up to melting point and passes through the nozzle. The issue with moisture is the water turns into steam which effectively interferes / mixes with the plastic making it easier to ooze out during non printing stages (creating the stringing effect)
Check out this guide on how to prevent your filaments from moisture damage
Calibrating correct hot-end temperature
Calibration at this point is very important. Each filament manufacturer will give you a specific temperature to set depending on the type of filament you are using.
However, please note, these temperatures are very close guides, but it is always recommended to calibrate the temperature to near perfection.
Some people calibrate for each filament, even if it is the same material & model coming from the same manufacturer (there are always some differences).
A good starting point on how to calibrate your hot-end temperature is to watch the below video. In this case calibrating for PLA 1.75mm filament.Temperature Hot-End Settings: How To Calibrate
Increasing printer speeds during non-print moves
The concept here is that if your nozzle is likely to ooze out some plastic, the slower it moves during non-print moves (the distance the nozzle needs to travel from point A to point B through the air before starting to add new layers), the more time the plastic has to leak onto your model. However, increase that speed, and the plastic will not have enough time to drip.
The beauty here is that slicer packages have a setting to speed up the nozzle for non-printing movement which is independently to print speed. This way you can have slower print speeds for quality prints and higher non-print speeds for elimination / reduction in oozing.
3D Printing Issue #3: Blocked Nozzle (Bowden)
What is Nozzle Blockage & What Causes it?
There are several reasons as to what causes blockages, but they can come in two forms, complete blockage where no plastic is coming out of the nozzle and partial blockage where plastic does come out but is somewhat restricted.
While a complete block is easy to determine, sometimes a partial one is not. A good indication is when the filament does not come out linearly, but rather takes a bit of a bend when existing the nozzle.
Tip: A good indication that your are building up plastic within your nozzle is when you start to hear a clicking sound. These are the gears in the extruder motor slipping as they are not able to push the filament through.
Tip2: To clear out a complete nozzle block you can check out this video… it is really easy to, but a great tip is to have an extra nozzle at hand, you will see why in the video.For more details clearing out your nozzle this amazing video
How to Prevent Nozzle Blockage Issues?
Differences in Filament Diameter
Going cheaper does not necessarily mean saving money and the same can be true when purchasing filament spools for your prints. Although not always the case, cheaper end filaments are more likely to have variations in diameter throughout its length. This effects a steady extrusion flow and may cause a build up of filament in the nozzle which ultimately blocks it.
Sourcing filament manufactures that produce high end products with a constant diameter throughout will assist or prevent blockages.
Alternatively, if sourcing quality filaments is not an option, you can learn how to calibrate your extrusion to compensate for filament diameter discrepancies.
Setting Nozzle to close From Bed
It is important that your nozzle is set at the correct height from your bed (printer surface) to achieve a successful print.
Set the nozzle too high and the melted plastic needs to travel further to reach the surface. This added distance means more time for the plastic to cool and therefore result in adhering issues.
However, set the nozzle too low and not only will the plastic most likely smear all over the place, but it will also begin to back up in the nozzle, ultimately causing it to clog up.
Learning how to calibrate your Z-Endstop through this guide. However, depending on the printer you have, there may be some differences… the guide
Prevent Dust particles Entering Nozzle
Ahh good old dust, it seems no matter how clean you try and keep a room it is only a matter of time before dust particles start to settle everywhere, even on your filament spools that are either stored away somewhere or the one that you are currently using attached to your printer.
Consider your filament as a conveyer belt carrying dust particles, working its way to your nozzle. Now imagine dust impurities mixing into your melted plastic, what do you think is going to happen? Eventually there will be a build up of impurities resulting in a blocked nozzle.
Low Hot-End Temperature
It should be obvious that for your filament to flow through the nozzle uniformly and at a desired rate, the plastic must be melted at the correct temperature.
Setting your hot-end incorrectly (in this case not high enough) means your plastic is not viscous enough to push freely through the nozzle. This makes it harder for the motor to push it through, where the gears will most likely grind away at the filament (damaging it) causing even more extrusion difficulties due.
Always check the temperature specification of your filament. Note, that these specifications may not work perfectly, so be sure to do a little testing by increasing / decreasing the temperature by 2-3 degrees until you get the perfect print (remember not to go about the max temperature of your hot-end).
Finally when switching between filaments, be sure to remove all previous material is fully removed before changing temperature
PLA & ABS Temperature Guide
Material Description Extruder Temperature Temperature Tolerance PLA Most commonly used plastic, eco friendly (made form corn-starch), ideal for 3D prototyping. 200 °C ±10 °C Flexible PLA https://www.matterhackers.com/3d-printer-filament-compare ±10 °C ABS Most commonly used plastic, durable, ductile, withstands high temperautes. 230 °C ±10 °C Nylon Incredibly strong, durable and versatile. Often used for strong functional parts, such as hinges. 255 °C ±15 °C NylonX Reinforced nylon by adding micro carbon. For tough, stiff and impact resistant parts. 260 °C ±10 °C PRO Series Nylon ±10 °C ASA Alternative to ABS with improved weathering and yellowing from UV light. Ideal for out door prints 250 °C ±10 °C TPE ±10 °C TPU ±10 °C
Check this awesome guide for more on temperature specifications on different filament types
3D Printing Issue #4: Over Extrusion
What is Over Extrusion & What Causes It?
How to Prevent Nozzle Blockage Issues?
3D Printing Issue #x: Under Extrusion
3D Printing Issue #x: Lack of Bed Adhesion
3D Printing Issue #x: Layer Shifts
3D Printing Issue #x: Snapped Filament
3D Printing Issue #x: Stripped Filament